The effect of massage on creatine kinase and delayed onset muscle soreness in female distance runners

An increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occurs after eccentric resistance exercises and downhill running. This study investigated the effect of a 20-minute leg massage on DOMS and CK after a ten-mile run. Creatine kinase levels and DOMS were assessed in ten female runners 31.1 ? 8.68 years of age.

Two hours post-run, the experimental group received a 2-hour massage while the control group rested. Blood samples were taken and perceived muscle soreness was assessed immediately pre-run, immediately post-run, immediately post-treatment, and 24 hours post-treatment.

There was no significant difference in CK levels between the control group and massage group. The control group experienced a significantly higher mean DOMS perception (2.65) than the massage group (0.965) (P<0.05). A 2-hour massage, 2 hours post-10-mile run does not reduce CK levels but may have an effect on perceived muscle soreness


The effect of diabetic medications on creatine kinase-myocardial band levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

Engoren M, Zacharias A, Habib RH, Schwann TA, Riordan CJ, Durham SJ, Shah A.
St Vincent Mercy Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USA.

Ischemic preconditioning has been shown to attenuate the rise in creatine kinase-myocardial band levels that occur with coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Recently, concerns have been raised that some sulfonylureas particularly glibenclamide may block ischemic preconditioning.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various diabetic medicines on creatine kinase-myocardial band levels after CABG. In this retrospective study of 799 patients undergoing CABG, patients continued their routine diabetic medicines up to the day of surgery. Intra-operatively and postoperatively, tight glycemic control was maintained with an insulin infusion.

Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane supplemented by fentanyl. Creatine kinase-myocardial band levels were determined the day after surgery at 5 AM and the mean levels compared between diabetics and non-diabetics and further compared by type of diabetic medicine. After univariable comparisons, linear regression was used to determine the statistically significant predictors of creatine kinase-myocardial band levels.

After correction for other factors, none of the diabetic medicines was a statistically significant predictor of creatine kinase-myocardial band levels. We found that the use of glibenclamide or other diabetic medications had no effect on creatine kinase-myocardial band levels the morning after patients underwent CABG.

Keywords: Ischemic preconditioning; Diabetes mellitus; Sulfonylureas; Coronary artery bypass surgery; Isoflurane; Creatine kinase-myocardial band.


Metabolic biomarkers related to energy metabolism in Saudi autistic children.

OBJECTIVES: Energy metabolism is usually manipulated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Autism is considered a definable systemic disorder resulting in a number of diverse factors that may affect the brain development and functions both pre and post natal. The increased prevalence of autism will have enormous future public implications and has stimulated intense research into potential etiologic factors. This study aims to establish a connection between autism and the deterioration accompanied it, especially in the brain cognitive areas through a postulation of energy manipulation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The biochemical changes in activities of enzymes and pathways that participate in the production of ATP as the most important high-energy compound needed by the human brain were measured in Saudi autistic children. Na(+)/K(+)ATPase, ectonucleotidases (NTPDases) (ADPase and ATPase) and CREATINE KINASE (CK), were assessed in plasma of 30 Saudi autistic patients and compared to 30 age-matching control samples. In addition, adenosine mono, di and trinucleotides (ATP, ADP, and AMP) were measured calorimetrically in the red blood cells of both groups and the adenylate energy charge (AEC) was calculated. Moreover, lactate concentration in plasma of both groups was monitored.

RESULTS: The obtained data recorded 148.77% and 72.35% higher activities of Na(+)/K(+)ATPase and CREATINE KINASE respectively in autistic patients which prove the impairment of energy metabolism in these children compared to age and sex matching healthy controls. While ADPase was significantly higher in autistic patients, ATPase were non-significantly elevated compared to control. In spite of the significant increase of Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity in autistic patients, there was no significant difference in the levels of ATP, ADP, and AMP in both groups and the calculated AEC values were 0.814+/-0.094 and 0.806+/-0.081 for autistic and control groups respectively. The unchanged AEC value in autistic patients was easily correlated with the induced activity of CK and ADPase as two enzymes playing a critical role in the stabilization of AEC. Lactate as an important energy metabolite for the brain was significantly higher in autistic patients compared to control showing about 40% increase.

CONCLUSION: The present study confirmed the impairment of energy metabolism in Saudi autistic patients which could be correlated to the oxidative stress previously recorded in the same investigated samples. The identification of biochemical markers related to autism would be advantageous for earlier clinical diagnosis and interventio


Stereospecificity, substrate, and inhibitory properties of nucleoside diphosphate analogs for creatine and pyruvate kinases

Antiviral -P-borano substituted NTPs are promising chain terminators targeting HIV reverse transcriptase (RT). Activation of antiviral nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) to NTPs may be carried out by pyruvate kinase (PK) and creatine kinase (CK). Herein, are presented the effects of nucleobase, ribose, and -phosphate substitutions on substrate specificities of CK and PK. Both enzymes showed two binding modes and negative cooperativity with respect to substrate binding. The stereospecificity and inhibition of ADP phosphorylation by -P-borano substituted NDP (NDPB) stereoisomers were also investigated. The Sp-ADPB isomer was a 70-fold better substrate for CK than the Rp isomer, whereas PK preferred the Rp isomer of NDPBs. For CK, the Sp-ADPB isomer was a competitive inhibitor; for PK, the Rp-ADPB isomer was a poor competitive inhibitor and the Sp-ADPB isomer was a poor non-competitive inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggest that, although the Rp-NDPB isomer would be minimally phosphorylated by CK or PK, it should not inhibit either enzyme.


Creatine Kinase–Mediated ATP Supply Fuels Actin-Based Events in Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis requires locally coordinated cytoskeletal rearrangements driven by actin polymerization and myosin motor activity. How this actomyosin dynamics is dependent upon systems that provide access to ATP at phagosome microdomains has not been determined. We analyzed the role of brain-type creatine kinase (CK-B), an enzyme involved in high-energy phosphoryl transfer. We demonstrate that endogenous creatine kinase (CK-B), in macrophages is mobilized from the cytosolic pool and coaccumulates with F-actin at nascent phagosomes. Live cell imaging with XFP-tagged CK-B and β-actin revealed the transient and specific nature of this partitioning process. Overexpression of a catalytic dead CK-B or CK-specific cyclocreatine inhibition caused a significant reduction of actin accumulation in the phagocytic cup area, and reduced complement receptor–mediated, but not Fc-γR–mediated, ingestion capacity of macrophages. Finally, we found that inhibition of CK-B affected phagocytosis already at the stage of particle adhesion, most likely via effects on actin polymerization behavior. We propose that CK-B activity in macrophages contributes to complement-induced F-actin assembly events in early phagocytosis by providing local ATP supply.


Comparison of MB Fraction of Creatine Kinase Mass and Troponin I Serum Levels With Necropsy Findings in Acute Myocardial Infarction

Serum levels of troponin and heart-related fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) mass are used as diagnostic and prognostic criteria in myocardial infarction , but the relation between those levels and the necropsy-determined size of necrosis has not been tested in human beings.

In this retrospective study, 1-cm-thick transverse sections of the ventricles were cut from the base to the apex in the necropsy hearts of 27 patients aged 47 to 86 years (mean 66, median 69; 19 men). Total and necrotic areas were measured using a computer-linked image analysis system. The weights of the necrotic areas were also calculated.

The correlations of the areas and weights of necrotic myocardium with the highest serum values of CK-MB mass and troponin I, which had been quantified during life by chemiluminescence immunoassays, were verified by Pearson's test; results were considered significant at p <=0.05.

Significant correlations were detected between Creatine Kinase isoenzyme mb (CK-MB) mass peak and infarct size (r = 0.63, p <0.01) and weight (r = 0.69, p <0.01) and between CK-MB mass and highest troponin level (r = 0.73, p <0.01); however, the correlations between highest troponin level and myocardial infarct size (r = 0.31, p = 0.11) and weight (r = 0.35, p = 0.07) were small and nonsignificant.

In conclusion, despite the well-established role of serum levels of troponin as a diagnostic tool for myocardial infarction, their highest values showed poor correlations with the extent of infarct. In contrast, the highest serum level of CK-MB mass was well correlated with myocardial infarct size.

Costa TN, Cassaro Strunz CM, Nicolau JC, Gutierrez PS.
Heart Institute (InCor), Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Am J Cardiol. 2008 Feb 1;101(3):311-4.


New physiological model of serum creatine phosphokinase activity in acute myocardial infarction

In this report, we introduce a new physiological model of the serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity change, that is useful for estimating the total CPK release accurately even with reduced blood sampling frequency. The physiological model was applied to the serum creatine kinase CPK activity change of patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the model showed good agreement with the serum CPK activity. In addition, the calculated value of total CPK release agreed well with that calculated using the conventional technique.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Okayama University Graduate School, 2-5-1 Shikata, Okayama-shi, Okayama, JAPAN,Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;1:912-5,Kitawaki T, Oka H, Kusachi S, Himeno R.